Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)A developmental disorder consisting of problems with attention span, impulse control, and activity level. These disorders often lead to difficulties in peer relationships and school functioning.
- ADHD, combined type (inattention & hyperactivity/impulsivity)
- ADHD, predominantly inattentive type
- ADHD, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type
Communication DisordersCommunication disorders involve difficulties in some aspect of using or understanding spoken language to communicate.
- Expressive Language Disorder Difficulties with language including limited vocabulary, making errors in tense, or having difficulty recalling words or producing sentences with developmentally appropriate length or complexity
- Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder Difficulties include those for Expressive Language Disorder as well as difficulty understanding words, sentences, or specify types of words, such as spatial terms
- Phonological Disorder Difficulties in speech skills such as errors in sound production, use, representation, or organization (e.g., substitutions or one sound for another or omissions of sounds such as final consonants)
Academic Learning DisabilityAn academic learning disability in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using spoken or written language, that manifests as a weakness in the ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematics.
- Reading Disorder (also called Dyslexia)
- Mathematics Disorder (also called Dyscalculia)
- Disorder of Written Expression (also called Dysgraphia)
- Visual Spatial Organization Disorder
- Executive Function Disorder
Social-Emotional Learning DisordersSocial Emotional Learning Disorders (SELD) is a categorization of brain-based developmental difficulties with sociability. Symptoms typically reflect deficits in social emotional cognition. Children who are intellectually-normal but socially disabled may be diagnosed with Nonverbal Learning Disability, Asperger’s Syndrome and High Functioning Autism. The study of SELD includes three core areas: social interest (desire for age appropriate, reciprocal peer relationships), social emotional comprehension and social emotional execution. These areas are thought to affect each other.
- Nonverbal Learning Disability A disorder involving primary nonverbal deficits across spatial, motor, nonverbal reasoning, visual processing, tactile, and/or sensory processing domains. Social difficulties are also noted in both the execution and processing or understanding of social language, which are evident in nonverbal communication and social-pragmatics.
- Autistic Disorder A neurological disorder that impacts the normal development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills—in many cases (75%), there is an associated diagnosis of mental retardation.
- Asperger’s Syndrome A neurological disorder that impacts the development of social interaction skills and involves the development of repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities— unlike Autistic Disorder, there are no significant delays in cognitive development or language.
- Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (PDD, NOS) A disorder in which deficits in social interaction, communication skills, or repetitive behaviors may be observed; however, the full features of Autism or any other specific pervasive developmental disorder are not seen
- Behavioral Child Neurologist: a physician (M.D. or D.O.) who specializes in brain based behavioral, learning, and emotional aspects in children. Intervention services include pharmacology, parent and school consultations, and case management.
- Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist: a physician (M.D. or D.O.) who specializes in the behavioral and emotional aspects of infants, children, and adolescents and may prescribe medication as necessary.
- Neuropsychologist: a doctoral level (Ph.D. or Psy.D.) professional who studies the physiological basis of psychological processes, and the relationship between the nervous system and cerebral or mental functions such as: language, memory, learning, sensory, perception, and executive functioning.
- Clinical Psychologist: a doctoral level (Ph.D. or Psy.D.) professional who provides social/emotional, intellectual, and educational assessment and interpretation. Clinical psychologists also provide individual, group, and family therapeutic services relating to a patient’s mental and emotional health.
- Physical Therapist: a professional who specializes in trunk and lower-extremity function (including strength and coordination), posture and walking as they relate to developmental skills and functional activities.
- Occupational Therapist: a professional who specializes in upper-extremity function (including strength and coordination), eye hand coordination, sensory processing, and posture as it relates to developmental skills and functional activities.
- Speech and Language Therapist: Specializes in the identification and provision of services for children with articulation problems, as well as expressive and/or receptive language problems.